Aim: Childhood obesity is increasing in incidence and is strongly associated with obesity in adulthood. Several studies to explain the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of obesity have been performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between +45T>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and childhood obesity. Material and Method: 268 obese and 185 healthy (control) children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were enrolled. Laboratory tests including fasting glucose, insulin level, and lipid profile were drawn only from the obese participants. The +45T>G SNP in adiponectin gene was analyzed from the members of both groups by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Results: The genotype frequencies of the adiponectin gene for +45 locus in exon 2 were 77.9%, 19.1%, and 3% in obese subjects and 72.1%, 23.5%, and 4.4% in the control group for TT, TG, and GG respectively (p=0.357), with the allelic frequency of the G allele 12.5% in obese subjects and 16.1% in controls (p=0.129). When we compared different adiponectin genotypes, there wasn’t any significant difference in frequencies of TT genotype (wild type) and non-TT (TG+GG) genotypes between the obese and control groups (p=0.162). Also, comparing GG genotype and non-GG (TG+TT) genotypes revealed no significant difference between the obese and control groups (p=0.439). Among obese subjects there were no significant relationships between different genotypes and clinical characteristics such as presence of hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), hypertension, and insulin resistance. Discussion: In conclusion, in the present study, in a well-described obese and a control group of pediatric patients, we observed a lack of association between the +45T>G SNP and childhood obesity and its traits
Aim: Healthcare staff may be exposed to many risks as part of their profession. Infection control and prevention measures aim to reduce risks to the hospital and healthcare staff. This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of healthcare staff for hand hygiene and exposure to contaminated materials. Material and Method: The descriptive study was conducted among healthcare staff who volunteered to participate. Data were obtained using survey forms covering subject-related knowledge and attitudes of the healthcare staff. The study was conducted with 85 participants. Results: In this study, the numbers of times health care workers applied hand hygiene were grouped as “50 and below” and “over 50,” to indicate fewer or more than 50 times each day, and the rates were detected as 49% and 51% respectively. When asked which occupation group complied with hand hygiene most often in the work unit, the answers were as follows: nurses 81%, physicians 11%, and cleaning staff 8%. The most common answer to the question about the primary purpose of washing hands was to protect oneself (66%), followed by prevent transporting microorganisms (34%). Discussion: It is not easy to systematically measure belief and compliance; however, it is important and useful to evaluate the training needs of healthcare staff with questionnaires and observations at certain intervals and to organize in-service training programs continuously. This study has shown that there are still details to be corrected in terms of practices and attitudes despite training provided, that it is necessary to cover these details in training, and that the continuity of these studies should be ensure
Aim: In this study, we aimed to define the prognostic value of two factors related to angiogenesis and adhesion processes of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. The prominent angiogenesis molecule is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) first attracted attention more than two decades ago as endothelial adhesion receptor with key function for leukocyte recruitment in term of cellular immune response. Material and Method: 35 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas were enrolled in this study. The control group consisted of 20 people who had no sign of regional or systemic diseases. 33 patients were male and 2 patients were female. Mean age was 59.7 years (28-76). Results: We showed that VEGF levels in the patient group were significantly higher than in the control group (p=0.001). However, when comparing the VEGF levels of different stages, there was no statistical significant difference between the stages. Discussion: Serum VEGF levels can provide sufficient information for the early diagnosis of the disease but prognosis may not be evaluated according to the results of our study. VCAM levels were not specific and sensitive to use as a tumor marker but VCAM may be a valuable factor to determine the prognosis and tumor aggression in cancer patients.